Technique for Measuring Strabismus with Synoptophore – Review
Asian Journal of Research and Reports in Ophthalmology,
Binocular vision is a brain process in which the integration of two retinal images into a single visual perception is achieved. Binocular vision provides a greater field of vision as well as the main benefit, stereoscopic vision. For many years, the Synoptophore has been the standard choice instrument for Orthoptic management. It is used for assessing and treating of ocular motility disorders very reliably. Mechanical or electrical irritation of a retina leads to the projection of the sensation to the same point in the space where it would be projected if the same retinal point was irritated by light. This is the instrument that performs a comprehensive assessment of binocular vision. It provides standard measurements and easy treatments. To measure the range of fusion, it is preferable to start with convergence, gradually turning the arm of the Synoptophore inward and asking the patient if he or she sees a cat with a tail and ears. In conclusion its important for ophthalmologist and optometrists to have a good knowledge of handling the instrument and to get used of its worthiness in orthoptic practice.
- binocular vision
- orthoptic management.
How to Cite
Rizwan AB, Somani Cindy Hutnik. et al Using a synoptophore to test Listing’s law during vergence in normal subjects and strabismic patients. Vision Research. 1998;38(22):3621-363. Elsevier Science.
Petr Vesely, Svatopluk Synek. Simple binocular vision examination on synoptophore determination of normative database of healthy adult subjects examination of binocular vision on synoptophore. Collegium antropologicum Conference paper; 2013.
Sen DK, Sing B, Mathur GP. Torsional fusional vergences and assessment of cyclodeviation by synoptophore method. Br J Ophthalmol. 1980;64(5):354–357.
Antony Arokiadass Baskaran, et al. Comparison of torsional amplitudes between emmetropes and myopes using after-image slides. Indian J Ophthalmol. 2019;67(5):655- 658.
Sen DK, Singh B, Shroff NM. Diagnosis and measurement of cyclodeviation. Br J Ophthalmol. 1977;61:690-2.
Bullock K, Bredemeyer HG. Orthoptics: Theory and Practice. St Louis: Mosby; 1968.
Kramer ME. Clinical Orthoptics, Diagnosis and Treatment”, 2nd Ed. St Louis: Mosby; 1953.
Parks MM. Ocular Motility and Strabismus. New York: Harper Row; 1975.
Lyle TK. Torsional diplopia due to cyclotropia and its surgical Treatment. Trans Am Acad. Ophthalmol. Otolaryngol. 1964;68:387-41.
Chia A, Dirani M, Chan Y-H, et al. Prevalence of amblyopia and strabismus in young singaporean chinese children. Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science. 2010;51(7):3411–3417.
Chia A, Roy L, Seenyen L. Comitant horizontal strabismus: An Asian perspective. The British Journal of Ophthalmology. 2007;91(10):1337–1340.
Yu CBO, Fan DSP, Wong VWY, Wong CY, Lam DSC. Changing patterns of strabismus: A decade of experience in Hong Kong. The British Journal of Ophthalmology. 2002;86(8):854–856.
von Noorden GK, Campos EC, Greenberg MF, et al. Patching regimens. Ophthalmology. 2004;111(5):1063–1066.
Antona B, Barrio A, Barra F, Gonzalez E, Sanchez I. Repeatability and agreement in the measurement of horizontal fusional vergences. Ophthalmic & Physiological Optics. 2008;28(5):475–491.
Jiménez R, Pérez MA, García JA, González MD. Statistical normal values of visual parameters that characterize binocular function in children. Ophthalmic & Physiological Optics. 2004;24(6):528–542.
Palomo Álvarez C, Puell MC, Sánchez-Ramos C, Villena C. Normal values of distance heterophoria and fusional vergence ranges and effects of age. Graefe's Archive for Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology. 2006;244(7): 821–824.
Scobee RG, Green EL. Relationships between lateral heterophoria, prism vergence, and the near point of convergence. The American Journal of Ophthalmology. 1948;31(4):427–441.
Hatt SR, Leske DA, Mohney BG, Brodsky MC, Holmes JM. Fusional convergence in childhood intermittent exotropia. American Journal of Ophthalmology. 2011;152(2): 314–319.
Liebermann L, Hatt SR, Leske DA, et al. Assessing divergence in children with intermittent exotropia. Strabismus. 2012; 20(1):11–16.
Sharma P, Saxena R, Narvekar M, Gadia R, Menon V. Evaluation of distance and near stereoacuity and fusional vergence in intermittent exotropia. Indian Journal of Ophthalmology. 2008;56(2):121–125.
Abstract View: 623 times
PDF Download: 2203 times