Asian Journal of Research and Reports in Ophthalmology https://journalajrrop.com/index.php/AJRROP <p style="text-align: justify;"><strong>Asian Journal of Research and Reports in Ophthalmology</strong>&nbsp;aims to publish&nbsp;high-quality&nbsp;papers (<a href="/index.php/AJRROP/general-guideline-for-authors">Click here for Types of paper</a>) in all aspects of&nbsp;‘Ophthalmology’. By not excluding papers based on novelty, this journal facilitates the research and wishes to publish papers as long as they are technically correct and scientifically motivated. The journal also encourages the submission of useful reports of negative results. This is a quality controlled, OPEN peer-reviewed, open-access INTERNATIONAL journal.</p> Asian Journal of Research and Reports in Ophthalmology en-US Asian Journal of Research and Reports in Ophthalmology Orbital Cellulitis Complicated by Abscesses in a Child: A Case Report https://journalajrrop.com/index.php/AJRROP/article/view/89 <p><strong>Objective:</strong> To describe a case of cellulitis complicated with orbital abscess.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> A 13-year-old patient was admitted with painful palpebral edema and a fever of 39°. The diagnosis of preseptal cellulitis was made on CT scan. The patient was started on antibiotic therapy, but the course worsened with the development of an orbital abscess and a pansinusitis. Management involved surgical drainage and adapted antibiotic therapy. This multidisciplinary management led to regression of the abscess.</p> Lucrèce Joanelle Vydalie Eriga Arnaud Hugues Yempabou Yonli Fadhloullahi Khidrou Sambou Oumarou Djibril Adédoyin Yaya-Oye Keith Adjatin Rolyf Awore Taoufik Abdellaoui Yassine Mouzari Abdelbarre Oubaaz Copyright (c) 2024 Eriga et al.; This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. 2024-01-10 2024-01-10 7 1 12 17 Dacryocystitis Complicated with Abscess: A Case Report https://journalajrrop.com/index.php/AJRROP/article/view/92 <p><strong>Objective:</strong> To describe a case of dacryocystitis complicated by an abscess.</p> <p><strong>Case:</strong> This is the case of a 66-year-old patient who had been treated for dacryocystitis for two months, complicated by a recurrent abscess. The Treatment consisted of antibiotic therapy and drainage of the abscess, which progressed well. A dacryocystorhinostomy was performed after infection control.</p> Lucrèce Joanelle Vydalie Eriga Ricardo Mendes Arnaud Hugues Yonli Yempabou Keith Adjatin Rolyf Awore Fadhloullahi Khidrou Sambou Oumarou Yassine Mouzari Abdelbarre Oubaaz Copyright (c) 2024 Author(s). The licensee is the journal publisher. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. 2024-02-22 2024-02-22 7 1 32 36 An Unusual Incidental Finding of Drusen in a 32-year-old Woman: A Case Report and Brief Review of Literature https://journalajrrop.com/index.php/AJRROP/article/view/96 <p>The different appearances of drusen in young subjects could be explained by a different structure and origin. These conditions are closely related to AMD, but their relationship has not been clearly established. We describe cuticular drusen, colloid drusen and dominant drusen .We report a case of macular colloid drusen in a 32 years old woman , incidentally finded , with no complications&nbsp;; an ophthalmological workup was performed. There was no intervention required and the patient will be monitored for complications. Generally, patients are managed conservatively with observation, unless choroidal neovascularization develops. In this case, anti-VEGF injections have been shown to improve vision and resolve subretinal fluid. Another treatment option is the use of lasers to eliminate the sub-retinal fluid.</p> Bouggar Manal Brarou Houda Chaibi Zakaria Mouzari Yassine Oubaaz Abdelbarre Copyright (c) 2024 Author(s). The licensee is the journal publisher. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. 2024-03-22 2024-03-22 7 1 53 57 Endogenous Endophthalmitis : A Case Report https://journalajrrop.com/index.php/AJRROP/article/view/98 <p>This study aims to present a case of endogenous endophthalmitis complicating a pulmonary abscess, and to discuss the clinical features of this pathology. Acute endophthalmitis is a pan uveitis most often resulting from bacterial infection; it is termed endogenous when dissemination occurs via the hematogenous way from a septic site. This is a 75-year-old patient with no history of ocular surgery or other endo-ocular procedures or trauma, who presented 2 years ago with a poorly treated pulmonary abscess, and who came to the emergency department with a painful red eye associated with decreased visual acuity in the left eye. Vitrectomy may also be indicated. Given the fragile nature of the patient’s condition, the prognosis is often poor, both anatomically and functionally.</p> M. Bouggar Z. chaibi H. brarou T. Abdellaoui Y. Mouzari A. Oubaaz Copyright (c) 2024 Author(s). The licensee is the journal publisher. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. 2024-03-26 2024-03-26 7 1 64 67 The Importance of Ophthalmological Examination in Erythematous Lupus: A Case Report and Literature Review https://journalajrrop.com/index.php/AJRROP/article/view/100 <p><strong>Objective:</strong> Underline the importance of ophthalmological clinical examination in the management of Lupus.</p> <p><strong>Case Report:</strong> A 25-year-old female with no previous medical history presented 15 days ago with erythematous, non-itchy, scaly maculo-papular lesions of the face in the form of a butterfly's wing, evolving in a febrile context with altered general condition, constipation and memory problems. The diagnosis of systemic lupus erythematosus was made on the basis of the clinical symptoms, biological results and the biopsy. Treatment was based on a synthetic antimalarial agent. An ophthalmological opinion was sought with a view to the introduction of synthetic antimalarials.</p> <p>Clinical examination revealed corrected visual acuity of 10/10 in the right eye and 10/10 in the left. Biomicroscopy of both eyes showed infiltration of the lower eyelids, and examination of the retina revealed diffuse cotton wool spots around the vessels, a sharply excavated papilla rated 0.4 on the right and 0.3 on the left, good-caliber vessels without vascular sheathing, and good macular reflexion. Fluorescein angiography of both eyes showed no signs of retinal ischaemia (at the posterior pole and retinal periphery) or diffusion at any time during the examination.&nbsp; The patient was treated with hydroxychloroquine, dermocorticoids and local care for the skin lesions. The first month was marked by an improvement in skin signs, with stabilisation of the cotton wool spots on the fundus. However, dry keratoconjunctivitis appeared, leading to the prescription of a wetting agent and a vitamin A-based healing agent.</p> Lucrèce Joanelle Vydalie Eriga Youssouou Souley Abdoul Salam Fadhloullahi Khidrou Sambou Oumarou Keith Adjatin Rolyf Awore Arnaud Hugues Yempabou Yonli Sadiki Samah Yassine Mouzari Abdelbarre Oubaaz Copyright (c) 2024 Author(s). The licensee is the journal publisher. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. 2024-04-09 2024-04-09 7 1 74 79 Cystoid Macular Edema in Retinitis Pigmentosa Patients and its Medical Management: A Case Report https://journalajrrop.com/index.php/AJRROP/article/view/102 <p>Retinitis Pigmentosa (RP) take in a group of hereditary retinopathies that lead to progressive vision loss ; RP may be complicated by cystoid macular oedema (CMO). A 40-year-old female presented with fluctuant blurred vision for 4 years. Best corrected Visual acuity (BCVA) was 20/20 in both eyes. Examination and imaging showed besides bone spicule pigmentation a macular edema . Currently the patient is under medical treatement. Successful management of RP-CMO should allow to improve quality and quantity of vision in the short term and also slow the progression of central vision loss on the long term. This report describes a case of using carbonic anhydrase inhibitor CAI per os medication to manage CMO secondary to RP in a long term.</p> Manal Bouggar Houda Brarou Zakaria Chaibi Yassine Mouzari Abdelbare Oubaaz Copyright (c) 2024 Author(s). The licensee is the journal publisher. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. 2024-04-19 2024-04-19 7 1 85 91 Moebius Syndrome: A Case Report on Uncommon Congenital Disorder https://journalajrrop.com/index.php/AJRROP/article/view/103 <p>Moebius syndrome (MBS) is a rare congenital disorder characterized by facial paralysis and limitations in eye movement due to cranial nerve involvement, with potential additional craniofacial and limb abnormalities. We present the case of a two-year-old girl with MBS who presented with watering in both eyes. Clinical examination revealed left-sided facial paralysis, convergent strabismus, and limb malformation. The etiology of MBS remains uncertain, with both genetic and environmental factors implicated. Diagnosis relies on clinical criteria, with supportive care and multidisciplinary management essential for optimizing outcomes. Early rehabilitation is crucial, and interventions may include surgical correction and therapies addressing associated issues. MBS poses significant challenges, necessitating careful evaluation and management strategies to improve patient outcomes and quality of life.</p> Rokhsana Afroze Shoma Khairul Islam Md Sajidul Huq Copyright (c) 2024 Author(s). The licensee is the journal publisher. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. 2024-04-22 2024-04-22 7 1 92 96 Bilateral Preretinal Hemorrhage after Blood Transfusion from a Girl Managed with Rhabdomyossarcoma: A Case Report and Review of Literature https://journalajrrop.com/index.php/AJRROP/article/view/104 <p><strong>Objective:</strong> To describe a case of bilateral preretinal hemorrhage after a medina blood transfusion followed by rhabdomyosarcoma.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> This is a female patient, 21 years old, of rural origin, with a pathological history of rhabdomyosarcoma 8 years ago, she was seen in the emergency department of the aforementioned hospital with anemia of 4 hemoglobin and a bag of whole blood, a The day after a blood transfusion she developed a subconjunctival hemorrhage in her right eye. She was accompanied by her family to our ophthalmology emergency department, where she was seen at our service. According to the girl's ophthalmological examination, the girl's visual acuity without optical correction was 09/10 in the right eye and 10/10 in the left eye, annexes: eyelids without ptosis but with eyelid retraction, there was subconjunctival hemorrhage, preserved ocular motility, unilateral exophthalmia, without pain, non-reducible in the right eye, anterior segment without particularity, fundus of the eye presents spots of pre-retinal hemorrhage in multiple, very limited form with good macular reflex, and left eye: adnexa and anterior segment without particularity, fundus of the eye presents multiple stains Well-limited round preretinal hemorrhages located in the posterior pole and periphery. The pre-retinal hemorrhage of the girl with anemia after blood transfusion resolved without medical treatment, we advised the girl to drink more water than before and we monitored it every month and after three months it resolved with a favorable evolution.</p> Ricardo Mendes Lucrèce Joanelle Vydalie Eriga Youssef Ghallab Yahya Debagh Soukaina Daidai Adil EL Khoyali Aissam Fiqhi Yassine Mouzari Abdelbarre Oubaaz Copyright (c) 2024 Author(s). The licensee is the journal publisher. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. 2024-04-23 2024-04-23 7 1 97 101 Ciclosporin Eye Drops in Ocular Graft-Versus-Host Disease: A Case Report https://journalajrrop.com/index.php/AJRROP/article/view/105 <p><strong>Aims:</strong> To report a case of severe ocular graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) managed with topical ciclosporin.</p> <p>Introduction: Ocular graft-versus host disease is a rare and often misdiagnosed aetiology of dry eye syndrome.</p> <p><strong>Case:</strong> We report a case of young women presenting with a severe and bilateral ocular surface inflammation with filamentous keratitis, posterior blepharitis, Meibomian gland dysfunction and neovascular invasion. Ocular GVHD was diagnosed due to severe dry eye symptoms and a history of allogeneic haematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Immunosuppressive treatment resulted in a spectacular anatomical and clinical improvement, rapid resolution of symptoms and improvement in visual acuity.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> Ocular GVHD should be considered in any severe dry eye syndrome associated with allogeneic bone marrow transplantation. Topical immunosuppressive therapies have revolutionised the curative management of these patients.</p> EL Filali EL Mehdi Farah Benelkadri Houssaine Ait Lhaj Mohamed Kriet Fouad EL Asri Copyright (c) 2024 Author(s). The licensee is the journal publisher. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. 2024-04-29 2024-04-29 7 1 102 106 Unilateral Sixth Nerve Palsy Unveiling a Giant Nasopharyngeal Tumor: A Rare Case of Neuro Ophthalmic Presentation https://journalajrrop.com/index.php/AJRROP/article/view/106 <p>Nasopharyngeal tumor is an intrusive tumor arising from the epithelium of the nasopharynx, presenting as different symptoms depending on the area of the development of the tumor. It is an endemic carcinoma in North Africa. The location of the tumor, its difficult access to the physical examination and the symptomatology often misleading associated with invasion of adjacent structures explain the often delayed diagnosis.</p> <p>The purpose is to report a rare neuro-ophthalmic presentation of nasopharyngeal carcinoma.</p> <p>We report the case of a 60 years old woman who first presented with a sixth nerve palsy leading to the diagnosis of a giant nasopharyngeal tumor extending to the cavernous sinus.</p> S. Sadiki K. Sifnasr I. Tazi S. Sebbata Y. Achegri S. Salama A. Fiqhi Y. Mouzari A. Oubaaz Copyright (c) 2024 Author(s). The licensee is the journal publisher. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. 2024-05-06 2024-05-06 7 1 107 112 Sebaceous carcinoma of the Eyelid; A Pseudochalazion Entity : A Case Report and Review of the Literature https://journalajrrop.com/index.php/AJRROP/article/view/109 <p>Palpebral sebaceous carcinoma (PSC) is a rare malignancy originating from sebaceous glands in the eyelid, often mimicking benign inflammatory conditions such as blepharoconjunctivitis or chalazion, leading to diagnostic delays. This article presents a case of a 42-year-old female with a painless upper eyelid lump diagnosed as sebaceous carcinoma. The lesion was successfully treated, resulting in positive functional and aesthetic outcomes. This case underscores the importance of early biopsy and histological examination to distinguish PSC from benign conditions. Current treatment guidelines emphasize surgical excision with margin assessment, and radiotherapy for advanced cases. Establishing follow-up protocols based on melanoma guidelines is recommended due to similar metastatic patterns.</p> Meryam Smiri Mohamed Amine Khoudrani Abdeldjalil Mansouri Mohamed EL Sanharawi Copyright (c) 2024 Author(s). The licensee is the journal publisher. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. 2024-06-03 2024-06-03 7 1 129 133 For and against the Iris Diagnostics: The Ophthalmologist's Opinion https://journalajrrop.com/index.php/AJRROP/article/view/90 <p><strong>Introduction: </strong>The iridologists use iris diagrams, dividing the iris of the eye into 12 hours. Bulgaria also has a tradition of studying the iris, for example Peter Dimkov and his work "Ocular Diagnosis. A Practical Guide". However, according to most reputable international publications, "Iridology is not supported by any published studies and is considered a pseudoscience to most physicians."</p> <p><strong>Aim: </strong>To study the awareness of the population and the opinion of medical specialists on the issue of iris diagnostics in Bulgaria.</p> <p><strong>Materials and Methods: </strong>It’s a survey design, conducted at Eye Clinic “St. Nikolay”, over a period of 3 months: May - July 2023.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>A total of 300 participants were surveyed, including 123 medical professionals. The female respondents are more - 81.5%, about 90% are active population aged 20-60 years. Most respondents - 68.1% don’t know where such examinations are performed. The majority don‘t even know by who they are done: respectively 41.6% think they are done by eye doctors, and 24.2% they have no opinion. Almost 77.9% of respondents don’t know any specialists in iris diagnostics, but 57.2% would do such a consultation and would even pay not small amount of money for it – 50BGN. Nearly 42.3% of the respondents would trust the method. Until the time of the survey only 13% have already had such a consultation.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>The eye is a window to our health. Although iridology has its appeal, evidence-based medicine doesn‘t support the use of iridology in practice. The iris diagnostics is simply a way of possibly identifying a possible health problem.</p> Pitakova I. Mitsova D. Copyright (c) 2024 Pitakova and Mitsova; This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. 2024-02-02 2024-02-02 7 1 18 25 Eye Camp and its Impact on the Patients and Community https://journalajrrop.com/index.php/AJRROP/article/view/93 <p>Eye camps are vital for enhancing eye health in underserved communities. Eye camp organizers meticulously plan, promote, and provide comprehensive eye care services, addressing common conditions and offering health education. Patients benefit from improved access, early detection, and treatment, leading to enhanced vision and increased awareness. Eye camps also positively impact patients' emotional well-being, foster community support, and alleviate financial burdens. At the community level, they contribute to improved access, awareness, and education, reducing visual impairment, enhancing productivity, and fostering economic empowerment. These initiatives create lasting positive changes, with sustainability ensured through partnerships with local healthcare providers. In conclusion, eye camps are integral to community-based eye health, offering temporary solutions with lasting impacts on well-being and development.</p> Salman Ahmed Taher Hamid Md. Mahmudul Hasan Imtiaj Hossain Chowdhury Copyright (c) 2024 Author(s). The licensee is the journal publisher. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. 2024-02-23 2024-02-23 7 1 37 42 Axial Length Analysis in Patients with Retinal Detachment in New Zealand https://journalajrrop.com/index.php/AJRROP/article/view/95 <p><strong>Aim:</strong> The aim of the study is to analyse the axial length (AL) in patients with rhegmatogenous retinal detachment (RRD) in Dunedin Public Hospital (New Zealand).</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> Retrospective analysis was performed on the records of 105 patients who underwent retinal surgery with pars plana vitrectomy (PPV) in Dunedin Public Hospital between 1 January 2020 and 1 January 2022. AL was collected with a Zeiss IOL Master500. Data was compared to matched control groups: Dunedin patients requiring cataract surgery, a previous study of healthy individuals from Dunedin (Dunedin Multidisciplinary Health &amp; Development Study) and an Auckland control group comprising of two publications of patients in Auckland undergoing cataract surgery.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> Total data of 108 eyes of 105 patients, of which 42 were female and 63 were male, with an average age of 63.25± 16.40 years (mean ± SD), was included in this study. The mean AL of the patients was 24.30 ± 0.33 mm compared to the control group of 23.48 ± 0.06 mm. The difference in AL between RRD patients and the Auckland control group was 0.82 ± 0.23 mm, p&lt;0.0001. The difference in AL between the RRD and the Dunedin Cataract surgery group was 0.75 ± 0.29, p&lt;0.0001. The difference between male and female mean AL was 0.75 ± 0.67 mm, p &lt; 0.0285.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> Patients with RRD have been shown to have a greater AL when compared to those without, with a difference of 0.82 ± 0.23 mm representing approximately 2.2 diopters. Men have a greater mean AL when compared to women, with a difference of 0.75 ± 0.67mm, p &lt; 0.0285 representing approximately 2.0 diopters. </p> Patchara Jirapanyayut Francesc March de Ribot Jerry Goh Anna March de Ribot Copyright (c) 2024 Author(s). The licensee is the journal publisher. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. 2024-03-20 2024-03-20 7 1 47 52 Clinical Comparison of Bupivacaine and Lidocaine for Local Anesthesia in Glaucoma Surgery https://journalajrrop.com/index.php/AJRROP/article/view/101 <p><strong>Aims:</strong> To compare the clinical efficacy of bupivacaine and lidocaine for regional glaucoma surgical anesthesia.</p> <p><strong>Study Design:</strong> Cross-sectional comparative analysis</p> <p><strong>Place and Duration of Study:</strong> Department of Ophthalmology, clinic of Tashkent Medical Academy, between 2022 and 2024.</p> <p><strong>Methodology:</strong> We included 60 patients (60 eyes) with glaucoma; 28 men and 32 women; age range was 45-80 years. The patients were divided into two groups: 1<sup>st</sup> - 30 patients with lidocaine anesthesia and 2<sup>nd</sup> - 30 patients with bupivacaine anesthesia. The criteria for comparing the groups were: The rapidity of regional anesthesia, its duration, the general well-being of patients, the intensity of pain during the operation and in the early postoperative period on a visual analogue scale.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> In all patients of the 1st group anesthesia was achieved within 5-7 minutes, its duration was 40-50 minutes. In the second group anesthesia came later, after 10-14 minutes, but its duration was much longer, averaging 3 hours. Full ophthalmoplegia was received in 10 patients (33%) of the 1st group, and 21 patients (70%) of the 2<sup>nd</sup> group. Fifteen patients with bupivacaine and twelve patients with lidocaine had no pain during surgery. 8 (13%) patients experienced moderate pain (3-5 points). Five of them were operated under lidocaine anesthesia, three of which were operated with bupivacaine. Three patients experienced severe pain (6-10 points). Of these, two patients were operated on with lidocaine, and only one patient was operated. The average pain intensity was 2.0 ±0.4, and 1.4 ±0.3 with lidocaine and bupivacaine, respectively. Statistically significant differences between these groups for intraoperative pain syndrome are not obtained (p = 0.3).</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> Good analgesic effect was achieved in all patients of both groups. Anesthesia with lidocaine occurs quickly, and anesthesia with bupivacaine is longer and better. The use of bupivacaine was associated with lower pain levels due to the longer duration of anesthesia, which has improved the quality of life.</p> Nemat Ibragimov Norbuvi Bektemirova Guzal Kangilbaeva Abror Alimov Copyright (c) 2024 Author(s). The licensee is the journal publisher. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. 2024-04-13 2024-04-13 7 1 80 84 Expert Perspectives on the Clinical Use of Steroids for Various Ocular Inflammatory Conditions in Indian Settings https://journalajrrop.com/index.php/AJRROP/article/view/108 <p><strong>Background: </strong>Although there were clinical studies available regarding the usage of steroids, there were lack of data from clinician’s perspectives. This survey was intended to gather expert perspectives regarding the prescription practice and clinical use of steroids, including specific types and their applications in various inflammatory ocular conditions, as well as in post-cataract surgeries.</p> <p><strong>Methods: </strong>This cross-sectional study comprised of 26 multiple-response questionnaires about expert perspectives on steroid prescription practices for ocular conditions and post-cataract surgeries. The survey also collected data on cataract surgery frequency, geographic distribution of cataract development, gender prevalence, and awareness of ocular health in rural and urban populations. Data analysis was conducted using descriptive statistics.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>The study involved 103 ophthalmic experts in India and majority of the clinicians (36.89%) conducted over 50 cataract surgeries per month, with cataract development reported as most prevalent in suburban (37%) and urban (35%) areas. Most respondents (82.52%) indicated equal prevalence of cataract in both genders, with a higher occurrence observed in patients aged 51-60 years (49.51%). Prednisolone was the preferred steroid after cataract surgery among 64% of the clinicians and for treating anterior (53%) and posterior (64%) segment inflammatory conditions. A substantial proportion of clinicians (46.6%) reported starting non-steroidal anti-inflammatory (NSAID) therapy along with steroids in 21-30% of their patients for managing post-operative inflammation. Most of the experts recommended nepafenac (85%) as the most effective medication for controlling cystoid macular edema (CME).</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>The study highlighted the use of prednisolone as the preferred steroid after cataract surgery and for various inflammatory conditions. Loteprednol emerged as a favored choice for ocular surface inflammation and allergy-associated conditions, while nepafenac was recommended for controlling CME.</p> Manjula S Krishna Kumar M Copyright (c) 2024 Author(s). The licensee is the journal publisher. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. 2024-05-30 2024-05-30 7 1 120 128 An Overview of the Dosage, Side Effects, and Long-term Effects of Atropine Eye Drops in Management of Myopia Progression in Children https://journalajrrop.com/index.php/AJRROP/article/view/97 <p>Myopia, or nearsightedness, is a common refractive error affecting individuals worldwide, with its prevalence increasing significantly, particularly in children. Various strategies have been explored to manage myopia progression, among which atropine eye drops have gained attention for their potential efficacy. Atropine, a muscarinic antagonist, has been investigated for its ability to slow down myopia progression in children. However, concerns about dosage, side effects, and long-term effects remain significant considerations in utilizing atropine eye drops for myopia control in pediatric populations. The dosage of atropine eye drops in myopia control regimens varies across studies, with concentrations ranging from 0.01% to 0.5%. Lower concentrations, such as 0.01% and 0.02%, have been found effective in slowing myopia progression while minimizing adverse effects. Conversely, higher concentrations, such as 0.5%, may offer greater efficacy but are associated with an increased risk of adverse effects. Dosage frequency also varies, with daily administration being the most common regimen. However, individualized dosing strategies based on patient age, severity of myopia and response to treatment are crucial considerations for optimizing outcomes. Although atropine eye drops have shown promise in controlling myopia progression, they are associated with various ocular and systemic side effects. Common ocular side effects include photophobia, near-vision blur, and transient pupil dilation, which can affect visual acuity and quality of life. Systemic side effects, such as dry mouth, flushing, and tachycardia, may occur, particularly with higher concentrations of atropine. This literature review provides an overview of the utilization of atropine eye drops as a means to control myopia progression in children, focusing on dosage, side effects, and long-term effects. This review shall highlight the importance of individualized dosing regimens, vigilant monitoring of side effects, and longitudinal studies to optimize the use of atropine eye drops in managing myopia progression in children.</p> Hanan Ali Mohammad Nahla Adel Gamaleldin Sayed Shafie Copyright (c) 2024 Author(s). The licensee is the journal publisher. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. 2024-03-26 2024-03-26 7 1 58 63 Hyphema Post Intravitreal Injection of Bevacizumab https://journalajrrop.com/index.php/AJRROP/article/view/87 <p><strong>Objective</strong><strong>:</strong> To describe a case of total hyphema after intravitreal injection of Bevacizumab.<br><strong>Results:</strong> This is a 54 years old patient diagnosed with exudative age-related macular degeneration who was admitted for injection of Bevacizumab in the right eye. The visual acuity was 02/10 in both eyes, and the injection was performed after eliminating the contraindications on biomicroscope examination. The immediate evolution after injection was marked by a total hyphema. The management was based on antibiotic and anti-inflammatory eye drops, rehydration and monitoring. The hyphema disappeared after ten days with visual acuity remained at 02/10.</p> Lucrèce Joanelle Vydalie Eriga Arnaud Hugues Yempabou Yonli Ricardo Mendes Yassine Mouzari Abdelbarre Oubaaz Copyright (c) 2024 Eriga et al.; This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. 2024-01-02 2024-01-02 7 1 1 4 Foveal Atrophy Following Traumatic Central Serous Chorioretinopathy- A Rare Case Report https://journalajrrop.com/index.php/AJRROP/article/view/88 <p><strong>Purpose: </strong>To present a rare case of foveal atrophy following traumatic central serous chorioretinopathy.</p> <p><strong>Methods: </strong>The case was evaluated through a comprehensive ophthalmic assessment including visual acuity, fundus examination and OCT scans.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> A 40-year-old female experienced severe blunt trauma to her right eye and presented to the emergency unit of a specialized ophthalmic hospital with significantly decreased vision (OD counting fingers at 1 meter, OS 6/6). Fundus examination reveals an obvious macular neurosensory retinal detachment with subretinal fluid in the right eye as confirmed by OCT. After 1 month, another OCT was performed, demonstrating the complete resolution of subretinal fluid, but with foveal atrophy and visual acuity remain counting fingers for a 1-meter distance in her affected eye.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>Trauma as a cause for CSR is highly unusual or rare. However, foveal atrophy as a result of traumatic CSR in a one-month follow-up was not previously reported in the literature.</p> Muthanna Basheer Yasir Copyright (c) 2024 Yasir; This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. 2024-01-05 2024-01-05 7 1 5 11 Total Exposure of a Hydroxyapatite Orbital Implant, Five Years after Evisceration: Case Report and Review of the Literature https://journalajrrop.com/index.php/AJRROP/article/view/91 <p><strong>Objective:</strong> To describe a case of implant complication after evisceration.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> The patient was 28 years old with ocular trauma history and evisceration of the left eye five years previously, and placement of an intraocular ball who consulted to the emergency department with left retro-orbital pain and progressive worsening for one month, associated with abundant purulent oozing secretions. The examination of the left orbital cavity revealed palpebral edema, externalization of the deteriorated hydroxyapatite ball, absence of sclera and conjunctiva, and abundant purulent yellowish secretions. The patient underwent emergency lavage. Antibiotic therapy and revision surgery were performed. The evolution was favorable.</p> Lucrèce Joanelle Vydalie Eriga Fadhloullahi Khidrou Sambou Oumarou Arnaud Hugues Yempabou Yonli Ricardo Mendes Djibril Adédoyin Yaya-Oye Adil EL Khoyali Boui Hatim Yassine Mouzari Abdelbarre Oubaaz Copyright (c) 2024 Eriga et al.; This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. 2024-02-03 2024-02-03 7 1 26 31 Bilateral Titled Optics Discs with Posterior Staphyloma in Non-myopic Eyes: A Case Report https://journalajrrop.com/index.php/AJRROP/article/view/94 <p><strong>Objective:</strong> To describe a case of bilateral titled optics discs with posterior staphyloma in non-myopic eyes.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> This was a 66-year-old woman with a history of metabolic syndrome presented to the ophthalmology clinic for a bilateral painless visual impairment evolving gradually for the last three months. Clinical examination revealed a bilateral astigmatism in both eyes: -0.75 at 93 degree on right eye and at 64 degree on left eye. The best corrected visual acuity was 20/20 in both eyes. The examination of the anterior segment was normal. The fundus examination noted an inferonasal titled optic discs associated with staphyloma. An orbito-cerebral magnetic resonance imaging was performed to document the staphyloma and exclude an optic disc hypoplasia. The MRI confirmed the bilateral eyeballs staphyloma without any other issue.</p> Lucrèce Joanelle Vydalie Eriga Imane Jeddou Arnaud Hugues Yempabou Yonli Fadhloullahi Khidrou Sambou Oumarou Badreddine Oubaaz Yassine Mouzari Abdelbarre Oubaaz Copyright (c) 2024 Author(s). The licensee is the journal publisher. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. 2024-03-05 2024-03-05 7 1 43 46 Exploring the Influence of Screen Time on Myopia Risk in Preschoolers and Adults https://journalajrrop.com/index.php/AJRROP/article/view/99 <p>The excessive screen time that has become an evident part of the current generation’s agenda has resulted in the comeback of refractive errors and many other related eye conditions in the adult population. Nowadays, the level and the kind of screen time exposure that people have also seized increased, requiring research on whether there exists any association between their consumption and the likelihood of refractive errors becoming worse or even developing. Myopia, hyperopia, and astigmatism are the most typical types of refractive errors that can lead to visual impairments and limit a person's active lifestyle as well as impacting work performance. Many investigations were conducted to discover the level of myopia and hyperopia following a prolonged time in front of screens. A longer period dedicated to close work, like reading and computer use, was found to be strongly correlated with a bigger risk of increased myopia in adult people. On the other hand, the near vision activities being the result of close-up tasks not only proved to be a potential risk factor for developing myopia but also ended up being a protective factor against the same. Several potential mechanisms have been proposed to elucidate the link between screen time exposure and refractive errors. The most widely accepted theory is the “near work hypothesis,” which posits that prolonged engagement in close-up activities leads to excessive accommodation and axial elongation of the eyeball, thereby increasing the risk of myopia development. This review shall explore the influence of specific screen-related activities, such as reading from electronic devices and engaging in near-work tasks, on the development of refractive errors. This review discusses potential mechanisms underlying the relationship between screen time and refractive error development, including changes in ocular biometrics, accommodative dysfunction, and environmental factors. By critically evaluating the available literature, this review aims to provide insights into the complex interplay between screen time exposure and refractive error development in adult patients. Understanding these relationships is crucial for informing public health interventions and guidelines aimed at promoting healthy screen habits and minimizing the risk of ocular complications in the digital age.</p> Nahla Adel Gamaleldin Sayed Shafie Copyright (c) 2024 Author(s). The licensee is the journal publisher. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. 2024-03-30 2024-03-30 7 1 68 73 Comparing the Outcomes of Different Corneal Refractive Surgeries, Such as (Lasik) Laser Assisted in Situ Keratomileusis, (PRK) Photorefractive Keratectomy, and (Smile) Small Incision Lenticule Extraction https://journalajrrop.com/index.php/AJRROP/article/view/107 <p>This literature review provides an in-depth analysis of visual outcomes, dry eye incidence, corneal sensitivity, and high-order aberrations (HOAs) associated with three common corneal refractive surgeries: Transepithelial Photorefractive Keratectomy (Trans-PRK), Laser-Assisted in Situ Keratomileusis (LASIK), and Small Incision Lenticule Extraction (SMILE). In terms of visual outcomes, Trans-PRK demonstrates favorable efficacy and safety comparable to LASIK, with potential advantages in predictability. However, Trans-PRK adult patients may experience higher variability in spherical equivalent during the postoperative period. Conversely, SMILE exhibits comparable visual outcomes to LASIK, but with delayed visual acuity recovery possibly due to stromal edema. Comparative studies between Trans-PRK and SMILE are limited, but initial findings suggest SMILE may offer improved visual results and reduced residual astigmatism. Dry eye and corneal sensitivity post-surgery vary among procedures, influenced by factors such as nerve damage, flap size, and ablation size. PRK results in severance of corneal nerves, leading to temporary postoperative pain, whereas LASIK and SMILE show differing rates of reinnervation, with SMILE potentially preserving corneal sensitivity better due to its less invasive nature. High-order aberrations, affecting visual quality, differ among surgeries. Trans-PRK is believed to induce fewer aberrations due to greater corneal integrity compared to LASIK, while SMILE may lead to higher levels of coma and total HOAs in the early postoperative period.</p> Nahla Adel Gamaleldin Sayed Shafie Copyright (c) 2024 Author(s). The licensee is the journal publisher. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. 2024-05-17 2024-05-17 7 1 113 119